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Kuwait's sulphur boost

Summary

Kuwait is in the middle of a major overhaul and expansion of its refining capacity, as well as boosting LPG output and sour gas processing.

Abstract

Kuwait’s history in oil and gas development dates back to 1938, when oil was first discovered in the Kingdom at the Burgan oil field. Initially the Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) was owned by Anglo-Persian Oil (later to become BP), but the Kuwaiti government gradually increased its stake in the company over the decades until by 1976 it was 100% state owned. Keywords: SHUAIBA, ZOUR, ABDULLAH, MINA, AHMADI, REFINERY, REFINERIES, BURGAN, JURASSIC, KPC, PETROLEUM, RECOVERY

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North American sulphur

Summary

Although North America is no longer the world's largest sulphur exporter, it remains a major producer and consumer, and there are still significant exports and imports of sulphur into and out of the region.

Abstract

Arguably the modern sulphur industry began in North America, via Frasch mining in the United States, and then recovered sulphur from sour gas in Canada and later refineries in both countries. While the US was always the largest producer, Canada became the largest exporter, much of it to the US, as the US used more domestically for phosphate extraction and other industrial uses. Keywords: LSFO, MGO, SANDS, SASKATCHEWAN, ALBERTA, COLUMBIA, BC, PADD, MEXICO, DEMAND, SUPPLY, TRADE, MARKET, PHOSPHATE, NUTRIEN, SYNCRUDE, BITUMEN, UPGRADE

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SulGas 2020

Summary

Now in its second year, SulGas 2020, South Asia's only conference on gas treating and sulphur recovery, took place 3-4 February 2020 at the Novotel – Juhu Beach, in Juhu, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

Building on the success of the first SulGas conference in 2019, this year SulGas attracted 170 delegates from 68 companies – 46 Indian companies, including 11 operating companies, and 22 international companies. Keywords: SulGas, conference, gas treating, sulphur recovery, Mumbai, BS-VI, heat stable salts, process modelling, amine plants, Three Ten Initiative Technologies.

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Better monitoring and control in Claus plants

Summary

Applied Analytics discusses potential improvements made possible with data and analytical measurements fed into improved mathematical models to produce a more proactive approach to control and better performance of sulphur recovery units, AMETEK Process Instruments explains the benefits of feed forward control, SICK reports on reliable continuous emission monitoring systems and Wika introduces a new purge-free system to measure refractory temperature in the Claus reaction furnace.

Abstract

The control of a sulphur recovery Claus plant has been based on using simple concentration feedback for air demand control for the better part of the past 70 years. While the original British patent was issued in 1883, the Claus process was not implemented on a large scale until approximately 100 years ago and was using simple photometers since the 1960s to make measurements. Keywords: analytical measurement, SRU, H2S to SO2 ratio, ratio curves, feed forward control, process upsets, hydrocarbons, bypass options, tail gas treatment, quench tower, artificial intelligencen SO2 breakthrough, neural network, continuous emission monitoring, cold dry extractive, hot wet extractive, refractory temperature measurement, purge free, Type S thermocouple, monocrystal sapphire, Applied Analytics, AMETEK Process Instruments, WIKA, SICK.

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Improved sulphur degassing

Summary

Fluor/GAA continue to strive to improve the performance of the D'GAASS out-of-pit liquid sulphur degassing technology based on commercial operating experience and ever-changing environmental emissions regulations. T. Chow and S. Fenderson of Fluor Energy & Chemicals/Goar, Allison & Associates discuss operating experience that has led to the improvements of the new patent-pending third generation D'GAASS3G technology.

Abstract

All product sulphur from modified Claus process sulphur recovery units (SRUs) contains residual H2S; some as dissolved H2S and some in the form of loosely chemically bound polysulphides, H2SX. The total residual H2S concentration is influenced by the H2S vapour concentration (partial pressure) and the temperature at which the sulphur product condensed. Keywords: liquid sulphur degassing, D’GAASS process, Fluor Energy & Chemicals, Goar, Allison & Associates, operating experience, catalyst attrition, overhead corrosion, level control, upgrades, out of pit process, D’GAASS3G, modular unit.

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Processing ammonia in SRUs

Summary

R. Kranenburg of Duiker discusses the latest applications of SCO units in refineries and petrochemical complexes. The SCO unit is typically integrated in the sulphur recovery unit and is intended for processing ammonia, while also treating the tail gases from the upstream SRU.

Abstract

Duiker has developed its ammonia incinerator to meet market demands for a simple and reliable process that converts ammonia (NH3) in refineries and petrochemical plants into nitrogen and water. The Stoichiometry Controlled Oxidation (SCO) unit is typically integrated in the sulphur recovery unit (SRU) and is intended for processing ammonia, while also treating the tail gases from the upstream SRU. Keywords: Duiker, stoichiometry controlled oxidation, SCO units, refineries, petrochemical complex, sulphur recovery unit, SRU, ammonia, thermal incinerator, ammonia incineration, tail gas treatment, NOx emissions, sour water stripper, SWS gas, dual stage SWS unit.

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Redox reborn – the Valkyrie™ process

Summary

J. C. Bourdon, F. H. Brown and P. J. Photos of Streamline Innovations Inc. present the development and commercialisation of the Valkyrie™ process, which employs new chemistries and advanced control systems to remove H2S from natural gas at size scales ranging from single wells to entire fields, providing an operationally sustainable and commercially attractive alternative to standard H2S removal technologies.

Abstract

While the demand of natural gas in industrial and commercial processes has increased exponentially in the past few decades, its abundant supply and therefore relatively low cost have led to a need for efficient and economic removal of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from the gas stream. Keywords: redox technology, Streamline Innovations, Valkyrie™ process, H2S removal, surfactant selection, chelant selection, control system, extraction system, operational results, applications, sour gas, chelated iron, sulphur filter cake, wellhead treating, debottlenecking.

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