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Publication > Issue > Articles

Water treatment in sulphur recovery units

Summary

As the world moves towards more sustainable processes with minimum impact on the environment, plant designers are forced to investigate new ways of meeting stringent environmental regulations. Comprimo® has developed a solution together with Cool Separations B.V., using an innovative process called eutectic freeze crystallisation for the treatment of water effluent streams originating in SRUs that are difficult to handle by conventional water treatment solutions. T. Roelofs of Comprimo®, B. Brocades and M. Aljirjawi of Cool Separations B.V. discuss the benefits of this technololgy.

Abstract

In most refineries and gas plants, the sulphur recovery unit (SRU) plays an integral role in meeting the environmental limits of the facility. Depending on the environmental requirements, a technology licensor is typically involved in the design of these units and, depending on the technology selected, several effluent streams may have to be handled outside of the unit. Keywords: water treatment, sulphur recovery units, EUROCLAUS, SUPERCLAUS, Thiopaq, waste water treatment plant, WWTP, effluent streams, sulphate, Cost Effective Sulphate Removal process, CESR, activated sludge, AS, eutectic freeze crystallisation, EFC, amine based tail gas treating, caustic scrubbing, circular economy, crystallisation technologies, saline solutions, multi effect distillation, MED, mechanical vapour recompression, MVR, Comprimo, Cool Separations

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Alloy materials in sulphuric acid plants

Summary

Stainless steel and high-silicon alloys are making inroads in all areas of the sulphuric acid plant. These materials are increasing lifespan, safety, and energy efficiency both through their intrinsic properties, and through the additional flexibility they offer in equipment design. In this article, DuPont Clean Technologies and NORAM discuss strategic choices for long-term corrosion resistance and how using alloy materials for the equipment in sulphuric acid plants can benefit the producer and increase the productivity and lifetime of the plant.

Abstract

Sulphuric acid plants are often considered to be permanent installations; to be upgraded and maintained indefinitely with no fixed lifetime. Indeed many plants are now in operation with no remaining original equipment. This has been made possible by a change in attitude but also by industry adoption of alloy materials in most areas of the acid plant. Alloy materials reduce corrosion and erosion, are more easily repaired and maintained, and prevent fouling products from plugging up major equipment. Keywords: sulphuric acid plant, alloy, material, corrosion, ZeCor, corrosion resistance, converter, acid tower, gas exchanger, acid pump tank, acid cooler, acid piping, valves, gas ducting, SX alloy, SS304H, equipment, corrosion resistant materials, NORAM, DuPont Clean Technologies

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OXYSULF: lowering emissions

Summary

KVT has upgraded its wet sulphuric acid technology to improve plant efficiency and availability in various applications. Setting a new milestone in the desulphurisation of waste gases, OXYSULF is a high energy efficiency, zero waste process that achieves exceptionally high sulphuric acid concentrations and sulphur recovery rates.

Abstract

KVT Process Technology (KVT) has been active in the field of environmental technology for many years, with experience in the supply of turnkey off-gas treatment plants worldwide. KVT’s technologies use thermal and/or catalytic oxidation to convert all sulphur containing compounds in waste gases (e.g. H2S, CS2, COS or SO2) to SO3 and finally to sulphuric acid. Keywords: wet sulphuric acid, OXYSULF, SULFOX, emissions, zero waste, viscose industry, Tardigrade, KVT, waste gases, desulphurisation, energy recovery

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New hybrid sulphuric acid process

Summary

Allowable emissions of sulphur-containing gases are continually being reduced as a result of increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This has an impact on all new and operating sulphuric acid plants, where optimised operations and improved designs are required to meet the new emissions targets. NORAM and CPPE have formed an exclusive alliance and have introduced the Hybrid Sulphuric Acid Process (HSAP) to address this issue. This article presents some of the technical features of the NORAM-CPPE HSAP and discusses a number of performance parameters for industrial applications.

Abstract

Chemical industries must evolve to remain competitive, to improve performance and to become cleaner and more sustainable. Sulphuric acid plants are faced with a number of technical and environmental challenges: Keywords: sulphuric acid process, hybrid process, HSAP, Sulfacid, NORAM, CPPE, sulphur burning plant, metallurgical plant, SO2 abatement, scrubbing process, energy recovery

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The grandfather of the Claus process

Summary

Incorporating latest research1, Bernhard Schreiner of Linde recounts some of the milestones of Carl Friedrich Claus' journey through life providing some historical and technical background, but focusing on his most famous invention – sulphur recovery from H2S.

Abstract

Carl Friedrich Claus was a first child, born 9 November 1827 into a postmaster’s family living in the Hessian town of Kassel, located in the geographic centre of today’s Germany. In 1832 the Claus family moved a short distance to the little town of Schmalkalden, also in Hessia, which at that time was one of the many small autocratic states constituting the patchwork rug of independent territories called Germany. Keywords: Claus process, Carl Friedrich Claus, sulphur recovery, history, Linde

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From deficit to surplus

Summary

Fiona Boyd and Freda Gordon of Acuity Commodities take a look at the global sulphur market outlook out to 2023.

Abstract

As the world demands lower sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and lower sulphur content in refined products, the supply of sulphur continues to increase. Oil refineries and natural gas processing plants around the globe are increasingly required to capture more sulphur as a by-product. Keywords: IMO, SANCTION, SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRODUCTION, OCP, MOROCCO, PHOSPHATE, PHOSPHORUS, CHINA, AFRICA, ELECTRIC, MARKET

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Southern Africa's sulphur and sulphuric acid industries

Summary

Sub-Saharan Africa is a net importer of sulphur, mainly to feed phosphate and metals production. The sulphuric acid picture is complicated by new sulphur burning acid plants and taxation disputes with copper companies in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, however.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa’s oil and mineral wealth has attracted considerable inward investment by overseas companies. While the recent stall in the commodities market has put back many plans for new investments, especially in the central copper belt of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), environmental improvements to smelters are generating considerable volumes of new acid which are substituting for sulphur imports in some areas. Keywords: ZAMBIA, DRC, CONGO, NAMIBIA, COPPER, URANIUM, COBALT, REFINERIES, REFINERY, KONKOLA, KCM, SMELTER, SX/EW, ELECTROWINNING

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